Showing posts with label USA. Show all posts
Showing posts with label USA. Show all posts

Monday, 12 November 2018

The Nuclear Sedan Crater

Sedan Crater comes into existence of Sedan Nuclear Test. This Crater is located within the Nevada Test Site twelve miles of Groom Lake.  The Sedan Crater Maximum depth is 320ft and Maximum diameter is 1280ft. Sedan Crater is the result of the displacement of 12,000,000 short tons of earth. The Crater was created on July 6, 1962 by a 104-kiloton-of-TNT (440 TJ) thermonuclear explosion. In 1994, the crater was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.  The Sedan experiment was part of the Plowshare Program, established in June 1957 to discover peaceable applications for controlled nuclear detonations. The idea was that a nuclear explosion could easily excavate a large area. They are facilitating the building of canals and roads, improving mining techniques, or simply moving a large amount of rock and soil.

Also more than ten thousand visitors pay a visit to Sedan Crater through free monthly tours. These tours are arranged by U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. Its closest Soviet counterpart is the slightly wider Chagan Crater which filled in to create Lake Chagan. The Sedan Crater at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have features similar to the topography of Moon craters, 11 of the 12 American astronauts who walked on the moon trained in Nevada before their missions.

The Sedan experiment used an explosive device 3.5 times greater than any similar event at the Nevada Test Site. The explosion displaced approximately 7.5 million tons of earth, scattering it over 2,500 acres. The event covered vegetation and soil in radioactive material as far away as 10,000 feet from ground zero. Within 7 months of the excavation, the bottom of the crater could be safely walked upon with no protective clothing and photographs were taken. Hence, negative impacts from Operation Plowshare’s 27 nuclear projects eventually led to the program's termination in 1977, mainly due to public opposition. The explosion created fallout that affected more US residents than any other nuclear test, exposing more than 13 million people to radiation, although within 7 months of the detonation. The radiation had decayed to the point that the bottom of the crater could be safely walked upon with no protective clothing.

Further, the Sedan event and the other related experiments established that radioactive contamination in the surrounding areas made the technology prohibitive in area that might become populated. Nowadays, Russian thistle, also recognized as tumbleweed, dominates the plant species that have crept back into the Sedan Crater site. However in an analysis conducted in 1993 observed that the original perennial shrubs once living there had shown no recovery.

Wednesday, 19 September 2018

Lanikai Beach, The Best Beach in America

Lanikai Beach is ranked among the best beaches in the world. The half mile strip of Lanikai Beach is located in Lanikai, in the town of Kailua on the windward coast of Oahu, Hawaii. Like several beaches in Hawaii, Lanikai Beach is public property, not a state land. The beach water temperatures are normally 24–26 °C so you can spend plenty of time in the water.

The beach itself position is very unique, as you can watch the moonrise over the Mokuluas, especially during the full moon. Sporadically during the year the sun will rise directly between the Na Mokulua islands. This hidden gem is not connected to Kailua beach, so most tourists pass it up. Lanikai Beach is populated mostly by locals, the rich and famous and the occasional wedding at Sunset. However, Lanikai Beach is most famous among Hawaii peoples, but lacking several public facilities.

Peoples are having problems like, no parking lot, restrooms, shower and lifeguards. The Lanikai means ‘Heavenly Sea’. Adjacent to Lanikai Beach is a mainly upper-class residential area, accessible through public beach access paths. This magnificent beach has extremely soft powdery clean white sand. Peoples are constraint to violate parking lot due to no near parking area. Although, parking violation fines have increased in order to keep people from illegally parking in the residential area.

There are legal parking areas in downtown Kailua, where you have to take the bus to the beach for a rational fee. Parking violations are strictly enforced and include, but are not limited to, no parking within four feet of a driveway entrance or apron, blocking the unimproved pedestrian right of way. The beach cove on one of the small islands and the surf between the two are big draws to kyakers and surfers.

The best time to go to Lanikai Beach is in weekdays due to less crowded compared to weekends. Even it is still very problematic to find parking close to public beach accesses. So, one can imagine the plight of parking on weekends. The Lanikai Beach overcrowded during summer and winter vacation seasons. In those days, beach is completely parked every single day. This is a great place to swim with the Hawaiian Green Sea turtles because the reef protects it from the big Hawaiian surf. Bring plenty of sunblock as there is not much shade when on the beach.

The Lanikai Beach is famous spot for photo lovers; they regularly shoot videos on nice days. The special thing about this beach, having the two Islands in the background. Which attract photographers to make their photoshoot plan here? The background called Na Mokulua or Mokes. Lanikai Beach is consistently voted as one of the best beaches in the United States.  This is the only beach in the USA that was voted as one of the best beaches in the world.

The beach is Flat Island which is a bird sanctuary and destination for swimmers and kyakers alike.  Moreover, myriad shade trees line the sand and shade a large park with many picnic tables, a bike path and bathroom/shower facilities.

The magical aqua blue calm waters are perfect for swimming, but not at all good for snorkeling.  There is no reef to attract the fish. The water can also become a little cloudy from the fine sand stirring up from the bottom shoreline.  Kayaking is a fantastic way to enjoy in at Lanikai calm waters.  This is an exclusive two hour adventure that you must plan and head to sign up before arriving at the beach. 

It includes transportation, lunch, snorkel gear, life jacket, dry bag, and caters to beginners to more advanced kayakers. It’s a peaceful setting that promotes a relaxing setting for everyone to enjoy! Make sure, also remember to be well-mannered to the local residents, and clean up after yourselves when leaving the beach.

Monday, 17 September 2018

The Mysterious Mapimí Silent Zone

The Mapimí Silent Zone is the popular name for a desert patch near the Bolsón de Mapimí in Durango, Mexico.  It is the subject of an urban lore that claims it is a zone where radio signals and any type of communications cannot be receives overlapping the Mapimí Biosphere Reserve. You’re cut off from the rest of the world, gadgets stop working like cellphones, radio, or compass everything breaks down when you enter this land.  Researchers have dubbed this zone as the ‘Mar de Tetys’, or the Sea of Thetys.  This area was once completely submerged in water. The area has evidenced by traces of marine life fossils found in the area. Scientists state the territory has seen an unusually great number of falling meteorites. This could be because of increased magnetism levels observed in the area.

In July 1970, U.S. military launched an Athena test missile near Green River, Utah toward White Sands.  Missile Range lost control and fell in the Mapimí Desert region. When the rocket went off course, it was carrying two small containers of cobalt 57, a radioactive element. After one month of search, the local farmers found and reported the crash in the Northeast corner of the State of Durango. Once the rocket was found, a road was built, and the missile wreckage and a small amount of contaminated top soil were transported away.

In consequences the US Air Force recovery operation found a number of myths and legends relating to the area arose. A local resident hired to guard the crash debris during recovery operations supported spread these rumors. Moreover, legends include "strange magnetic anomalies that prevent radio transmission", mutations of flora and fauna, extraterrestrial visitations. There are lots of stories of aliens and unidentified flying objects in the Zone. People often get lost in the Zone. When this happens, sometimes tall blond beings appear out of nowhere.

The phenomena is now claimed to have been first reported in the 1930s by Francisco Sarabia. A Mexican pilot who was first reported that his radio functions had mysteriously failed while flying over the area. Similar claims have been made by other persons who have visited the zone, that radio signals didn’t work and compasses were unusable. This zone is sometimes compared to the notorious Bermuda Triangle, as both are located between parallels 26 and 28. People come from all over the world to experience this silence zone to look for the ever illusive.  However, sometimes attempt communication with otherworldly beings.

Nevertheless, when it compasses and communications equipment is shown to work accurately in the zone. The local paranormal enthusiasts claim that "the zone moves around". Residents, who do not accept the zone's existence, call such enthusiasts "zoneros" or "silenciosos", and say their activities have an adverse effect on the region. The Zone’s overall effects are disputed. However, without any doubt, this zone sits on the borders of the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Durango, and Coahuila, has an abundance of celestial activity including, visits from UFOs and extraterrestrials. This is a starkly beautiful and compelling part of the world, but it is remote: Escalón has fewer than 1,000 inhabitants, and Ceballos has just over 3,000. Their populations diminished as passenger rail service was abandoned and young people moved to the city or the U.S. Other than a few ranches, the desert itself is essentially empty.

The area has under-explored delights, such as a hacienda abandoned over a century ago, during the tumult of the Mexican revolution, and thermal springs tucked into a cave. If you’re brave enough then come and lost in one of the weirdest location found on earth. This is dry desert and dry season starts between Nov till May.  This is an area surrounded by mesquite, cactus, and guamis—brilliant yellow flowers resembling buttercups. Even so, the legend is now being used to help promote tourism in the region. Other claims are that the area attracts meteorites and causes various mental problems.

Thursday, 30 August 2018

Mount Katmai, Alsaka

Mount Katmai has long been recognized for its caldera collapse. Mount Katmai rises at the head of the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes on the upper Alaska Peninsula, along the volcanic front of the Aleutian arc.  It’s a large compound stratovolcano that consisted of two contiguous cones, both beheaded by the caldera collapse of 1912.

Still many people don’t even hear its name. Mount Katmai is 6.3 miles in diameter with a central lake-filled caldera about 3 by 2 mi in area. Mount Katmai was formed during the massive Novarupta eruption in 1912. The sound of the explosion would be heard in Atlanta and St. Louis, and the fumes observed as far away as Denver, San Antonio, and Jamaica." (Robert F. Griggs, National Geographic Magazine, 1917, v. 81 no. 1, p. 50)

In June 1912, the most spectacular Alaskan eruption in recorded history and the 20th century's largest measured volcanic eruption formed a large summit caldera at Katmai volcano. The volcano has caused ten known fatalities due to gas exposure. The caldera rim reaches a maximum elevation of 6,716 feet. In 1975 the surface of the Crater Lake was at an elevation of about 4,220 feet, and the estimated elevation of the caldera floor is about 3,400 ft. The flows were still hot enough to release gases and boil water and would be until the 1980's

Mount Katmai is centered on the regional drainage divide, the edifice is amazingly asymmetrical. It was one of largest eruption in the 20th century, ejecting almost 30 cubic kilometers of ash and debris into the atmosphere. It is well beating 1991 Pinatubo by a factor of 3 in volume and, for comparison, 1980 Mt. St. Helens by a factor of 30.

The magnitude of the eruption can perhaps be best realized if one could imagine a similar outburst centered in New York City. All of Greater New York would be buried under from ten to fifteen feet of ash. Philadelphia would be covered by a foot of gray ash and would be in total darkness for sixty hours. And Washington and Buffalo would receive a quarter of an inch of ash, with a shorter period of darkness.

The mountain is located in Kodiak Island Borough, adjacent to its border with Lake and Peninsula Borough. The massive eruption happened at a vent about 10 km to the west of Mount Katmai. More than 60 hours, the volcano eruption took place 28 km³ of ash flows and tephra representing 13 km³ of magma volume. Mount Katmai consists mainly of lava flows, pyroclastic rocks, and non-welded to agglutinated air fall.

However, very little is known about the historical activity of Katmai volcano before 1912 eruption. The Quaternary volcanic rocks at Mount Katmai and nearby cones are less than 5,000 feet thick. Much of the volcano is mantled by snow and ice and some valley glaciers radiate out from the flanks. The gigantic eruption produced a cloud of suffocating gas and ash that blackened the sky for the inhabitants of the town of Kodiak. The ash falling on them were quickly led to the harbor and evacuated by boat.

In 1919, geologists noted a lake covering a large part of the caldera floor. However at the end of 1923 the lake was gone and many fumaroles, mud pots, and a large mud geyser had replaced it. Please keep in mind that Mount Katmai should not be climbed without mountaineering skills and equipment. Because high winds, regular rain and drizzle, brown bears, icy stream crossings, crevassed glaciers, and particularly its remoteness make the area a true wilderness. But it’s exhilarating and risky, occasionally wonderful, rarely comfortable, and never to be trifled with.

The withdrawal of magma beneath Katmai resulted in the collapse of the summit area, forming the caldera. After the subsidence, a small dacitic lava dome recognized as “Horseshoe Island” was emplaced on the floor of the caldera. That is the only juvenile material erupted from Katmai caldera during the historical eruption. It was visible at the time of the expedition in 1916.

After that it has since been submerged by the Crater Lake. Still, the eruption from Katmai had a VEI of 3, and possibly involved phreatic eruptions. The nearby Trident, Griggs, and Snowy Mountain volcanoes became active long before Mount Katmai, and activity at Mageik volcano began about the same time as at Katmai.

The massive eruption had a decadal impact of wildlife, affecting the spawning of salmon in the rivers near Novarupta for years. The Mount Katmai cluster was built on a set of rugged glaciated ridges, marine siltstone and sandstone of the Jurassic Naknek Formation. The lake has since refilled to a depth of over 800 feet. Moreover, small glaciers have also formed on a bench within the caldera beside the lake. Pumice still floats on Naknek Lake nearby.

Access is difficult because the Katmai cluster lies completely within the Roadless wilderness of Katmai National Park. The only convenient access is by boat or amphibious aircraft from King Salmon to Brooks Camp on Naknek Lake. The fascination with the eruption goes beyond the size of the event.

Modern geology had never seen the deposition of such a large ash flow sheet. So it was the first time geologists could examine first-hand how the sheet cools and welds after an eruption. Overall, the 1912 eruption shows how interconnected magmatic systems in a cluster of volcanoes might be. The area of the Alaska Peninsula is still sparsely populated, but important things occurred nearby actually, directly above: air traffic.

Not only would the trans-Pacific lines be affected by ash of a Novarupta-scale event, but the ash fallout distribution shows that the potential exists for air travel across much of Canada and the northern United States (especially Seattle, Portland, Vancouver) to be halted. Thankfully, the eruption only lasted 60 hours, but it took at least a week for the ash to settle out of the atmosphere.

Today, only infrequent earthquake swarms occur in the Katmai Cluster and many of the hydrothermal features created during the 1912 eruption are dead. However, the eruption at Novarupta does show the potential for a new colossal eruption to occur where none has happened in the geologically-recent past. Hence a reminder of how vital volcano monitoring and research can be in helping notice the signs of such an event well in advance.

Source: CP

Wednesday, 1 August 2018

Volcanic Crater of Diamond Head Hawaii

Diamond Head is a famous volcanic crater of Hawaii, located on the eastern edge of Waikiki’s coastline. The most recognized landmark is known as Leahi (brow of the tuna) in Hawaiian. The crater was named “Diamond Head” by 19th century British sailors saw calcite crystals sparkling in the sunshine and thought they had found diamonds on the crater's slopes. These "diamonds" were actually shiny calcite crystals that had no value. In 1898, when the United States annexed Hawaii harbor defense became a main responsibility. One of the major defense forts, Fort Ruger, occupied the Diamond Head Crater. This broad, saucer-shaped crater is now a popular tourist place and hiking destination. Around 1.1 km hike leads to the edge of the crater's rim.

Diamond Head Hawaii has once been an active volcano, but hasn't spewed any ashes for more than 150,000 years. Diamond Head Hawaii has steep 99 steps, and a trip through the tunnel leading to them, as you climb the Diamond Head Trail near Waikiki. Further, geologists believe that the commercial diamond deposits were formed in the mantle and delivered to the surface by deep-source volcanic eruptions. These eruptions produce the kimberlite and lamproite pipes that are sought after by diamond prospectors.

Diamond Head Hawaii crater was formed during a single, explosive eruption that sent ash and fine particles in the air. Once these materials take place, they cemented together into a rock called tuff, creating this massive crater, and which is visible from the trail in the park. Most of the vegetation and birds were introduced in the late 1800s to early 1900s. The crater is 3,520 feet in diameter with a 760-foot summit. The volcano is a symbol of the worldwide recognition of the Hawaiian Islands. Many souvenirs from Hawaii and surf shop logos around the world bear the volcano's distinctive silhouette.

Because of its unique geological history, Diamond Head was declared a National Natural Landmark in 1968. Moreover, in the early of 19th century an observation deck was constructed at the summit to provide target sighting and a four level underground complex was built within the walls of the crater as a command post. A 580-foot tunnel was dug through the crater wall to provide easier access to the Fort. A battery of canons was located within the crater providing complete concealment and protection from invading enemies.

The observation deck and underground complex is now abandoned with the advent of radar but evidence of the command post is still present along Diamond Head Trail. A 1975 televised game show, The Diamond Head Game was set at Diamond Head. Diamond Head is an extinct volcano and one of the most photographed attractions in Oahu. In fact, it is a worldwide symbol of Hawaii and Waikiki, made popular in many movies, wall calendars and on postcards.
 Diamond Head Volcanic Crater hike takes 1.5 to 2 hours round-trip, and suggested that hikers bring adequate water, sunscreen and a hat. Although it is not very difficult, but never underestimate as hike is not a casual one. The mostly unpaved trail winds over uneven rock, ascends 74 steps, then through a tunnel and up another steep 99 steps. Further, the there is a small lighted tunnel to a narrow spiral staircase about 30 steps inside a coastal artillery observation platform built in 1908. From the summit above the observation platform both Waikiki and the Pacific Ocean can be seen in detail. Hence, if you want to hike at Diamond Head then it is highly recommended to come early to avoid the crowds and hot temperatures.

Tuesday, 31 July 2018

The Doomsday Bunkers of South Dakota

No one can sense unforeseeable future. The nuclear war or biological warfare destroyed human being. The catastrophic war can killed most living beings and wipe out earth with radioactive fallout. Hence, in South Dakota, about 8 miles south of the town of Edgemont United States plan to save a small population of 5000 human beings in a remote underground shelter would be one of the few surviving pockets of civilization scattered throughout America. These Doomsday Bunkers are equipped with protection against everything from bombs to bio-hazards. The company's latest offering, the XPoint, is advertised as the largest 'prepper' community on Earth.

The plan is proposed by California based survival company Vivos. Few years back the company acquired 18 square miles complex called Black Hills Ordance Depot. Which is completely retrofitted with full amenities like an internal power generation system, deep water wells, biological, chemical and radiation air filtration systems, sewage discharge, and critical support equipment?

The Doomsday Bunker Design contains over five hundred nuclear-hardened concrete military bunkers, to some extent buried underground and protected by thick berms of earth, to resist a surface blast wave, as well as radioactive fallout. This area is strategically and centrally located in one of the safest areas of North America, at a high and dry altitude of 3,800+/- feet, well inland from all large bodies of water, and 100+/- miles from the nearest known military nuclear targets,” Vivos says on their website. Instead of windows, LEDs are placed inside the bunkers to simulate the different views of the outside world.

Therefore, every bunker is accomplished of withstanding a 500,000-pound internal blast. Each bunker is 26ft wide and 80ft long and can accommodate 10 to 20 people and the needed supplies for a year or more. The bunkers are separated from each other by an average of 400 feet in all directions that will work in their favor by providing security, protection and privacy. The Black Hills Ordnance Depot (BHOD) was constructed in 1942 and originally functioned as munitions storage facility during the Second World War and the Cold War period.

The survival bunkers were called Igloos because of their characteristic shape. The complex was once spread over 33 square miles and contained over 800 igloos and all the amenities of a well-planned town including living quarters for over 1,000 people, an Army hospital, a post office, church, shopping center, movie theater, including a theater, swimming pool, bowling alley and other mainstays of a small American town.

The survival bunkers igloos held all types of ammunition including chemical weapons and the deadly sarin and mustard gas. The history of World War II reveals, the site also held Italian prisoners of war. After the serving its object, the facility was closed in 1967. These bunkers were used by the Army in 1942 and built with reinforced concrete to withstand a 500,000-ton blast. Peoples can now lease the bunkers to be used as shelters in the wake of a disastrous event.
In case of any nuclear war, a viral pandemic or an asteroid strike at one-time upfront payment of $25,000 per bunker, plus a 99-year lease of $1,000 per year. Moreover, shared bunkers are also available at $7,500 per person. Aside from the facility at South Dakota, Vivos also has shelters in the state of Indiana in a Cold War era bunker adept of accommodating about eighty people. Moreover, Vivos is also building a luxury private shelter in an underground complex in Rothenstein, Germany. Source: Charismatic Planet

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