Showing posts with label Pakistan. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Pakistan. Show all posts

Wednesday, 12 June 2019

Pattan Minara, Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan


Patan Minara is an ancient Buddhist monastery in Rahim Yar Khan Pakistan. The 2,000 years old monastery situated 8 KM from Rahim Yar Khan City a single burnt sienna column remains. It is very little known information about single column minara. However, it was believed to be built during Hakrra valley civilization during Mauryan period approximately 250BC. 

The archeologists believe the Patan Minara was built by Alexander the Great during his visit to the military expedition to Hind (India). The Pattan Minara means the “Tower on the Ford”. It is named after Pattan Pur, once a lush green city situated on the bank of the River Ghagra, an offshoot of the River Indus.

Alexander the Great established a cantonment under Greek Governor. Therefore, The Patan Minara served for keeping a watchful eye on the local tribes. Some mystical stories are associated with the history of Patan Minara. Some believe that hidden treasure was buried under the tower. A Sanskrit written brick was discovered at the start of 18th century when it was demolished. A fort, mosque, and tunnels still remain in that area. Some historians believe, Alexander also conquered the state and stayed in the ancient city.

Colonel Minchin the Ex-Bhawalpur the state passed an order to excavate the ruins of Patan Minara. He had heard that hidden treasure was buried in tunnels that were part of the Sienna column remains. Unfortunately, a worker came across a semi-liquid swarmed flies killed him at the spot. So, the digging process was stopped due to this disaster. 

In the 18th century Fazal Elahi Khan Halani the chief of Daupauta used its remains to build the Baghla & Dingar Forte. The local government even though officially declared heritage site. The unplanned housing is creeping up in the surrounding area and the construction industry is for reti-bajri or sand around the ruins. The nomadic peoples are living life in the surrounding area mainly depends upon their stock lives of camel feed.


Although Pattan Minara has lost its prime, local people are trying to save this site by pledging to bring back coins they found. Maybe someone has already been discovered the hidden treasure, no one exactly knows. The sole remnant of the civilization and its remains is eroding with the passage of time, and it seems like it wouldn’t stand in future. However, in recent times some restoration and beautifying work is done by the local government. 

If the department of Archaeology and the government pay some attention to this minara, it can reveal it's true to discover the likes of another Harappa or Mohenjo Daro. If you are a photography lover, then you should visit Patan Minara in the evening. It is the ideal time for photography when the sun is perfectly placed opposite of Minara. Source: CP






















Monday, 8 October 2018

Tomb of Nur Jahan

The Tomb of Nur Jahan situated in Shahdara near to Lahore Pakistan. The Tomb of Nur Jahan is a 17th century mausoleum was built by Mughal Empress Nur Jahan. Empress Noor Jahan lies buried in a tomb not far from that of her husband, Emperor Jahangir. The beautiful red sandstone mausoleum, is located in Shahdara Bagh, across the River Ravi from Lahore. The Tomb of Nur Jahan is part of an ensemble of nearby monuments, including the Tomb of Jahangir, Akbari Sarai, as well as the tomb of Asif Khan. In the 18the century the Tomb of Nur Jahan was plundered by army of Ranjit Singh.  And tomb was stripped of its ornamental stones and marble during the occupation of Lahore. And material & marble was used in decorating their Golden Temple in Amristar.  Even The Sikh ruler opened the grave of Nur Jahan and ordered her skeleton to be thrown to dogs and wolves. It has been said that half the Golden Temple's splendour derives from marble plundered from Nur Jahan's shrine.
 
Nur Jahan's tomb was separated from the other monuments by open fields. Then later interrupted by construction of the Lahore to Peshawar Railway Line during the British rule.  Also Quranic verses are inlaid in marble on the cenotaph. Nur Jahan was the most powerful Mughal Empress. During her reign between 1611 and 1627, she efficiently shaped the expanding Mughal Empire, and contributed towards religious causes and helped foster overseas trade. The Tomb of Nur Jahan suffered under British rule when a railway line was built between the tombs of Asif Khan and Nur Jahan. The tomb underwent minor repairs but is slated for major restoration.
 
Mehr-un-Nissa bestowed with the title Nur Jahan spent 18 years with Mughal Emperor Jahangir.  she died at the age of 68 years and much of the mausoleum was most probably constructed during her lifetime. She was fourth child of Asmat Begum and her husband Mirza Ghiyas Beg, who had both immigrated from Persia. a migrant from Persia, who along with his family had fled to Hindustan, and rose to exalted positions in the cosmopolitan court of Akbar. She married Jahangir in the sixth year of his reign, and, because of her abilities, soon became the fountainhead of authority at the Mughal court. The Tomb of Nur Jahan took 4 years to finish with the cost of 3 Lakh Rupees. The Tomb of Nur Jahan lacks a demarcated boundary, and mostly serves as a cricket ground for local boys. Indeed, it’s really amazing, how an average king gets himself a masterpiece, and perhaps the strongest woman of the Mughal timeline is unable to carry that strength to her lasting abode.
 
The Tomb architecture built on a podium in the takhtgah style. The platform measuring 158 square feet, and tomb is in the shape of a square and measures 124 feet on each side, and is 19.6 feet high. Minarets may previously have risen from the corners of the mausoleum, similar to the nearby Jahangir tomb. The tomb stands in the center of a Persian-style Charbagh. The original garden no longer survives, but once included tulips, roses, and jasmine. Noor Jahan, along with her widowed daughter Ladli Begam, lived in Lahore until her death in 1645, Shah Jahan having settled an annual allowance of two lakhs of rupees on her.
 
Contrasting to her father's tomb name “tomb of I'timād-ud-Daulah”, which was constructed in white marble. However, Nur Jahan's mausoleum is primarily clad in red sandstone, with a flat roofline alike to that of her husband's tomb. Also the exterior features 7 vaulted arches. Which were covered with marble and wrought with flower mosaics in semi-precious stones. The central arch on each side protrudes out from the three flanking vaulted arches. The initial photos of the mausoleum show its ravaged condition, where the bare shell, shorn of its decorative facing, with some traces of delicate fresco in internal muqarnas could be seen. Minute paneling was executed in intricate patterns and cornices are honeycomb shaped in several rooms. The inner floor is covered with marble and the outer platform with sandstone. The exterior, encased in red sandstone, was inlaid with floral motifs in addition to white, black and yellow marble.
 
The central vaulted chamber of the tomb contains a marble platform with two cenotaphs. One that commemorates Nur Jahan and the other to commemorate her daughter, Ladli Begum. This was built by Hakeem Ajmal in 1912. Moreover, the original marble sarcophagus bears decorative workmanship and the name of Allah, in the same style and size as seen in the tombs of Jahangir. The Tomb of Nur Jahan is inscribed an epitaph: "On the grave of this poor stranger, let there be neither lamp nor rose. Let neither butterfly’s wing burn nor nightingale sing". However, In the recent times, an attempt to restore the monument has been made to look completely new, having lost the delicate traces of floral and geometric flourishes she so loved.









 
 

Sunday, 7 October 2018

Mughal Emperor Jahangir Tomb

In 1637, a mausoleum built by Mughal Emperor Jahangir is located in Shahdara adjacent to Lahore, Pakistan. This is called Tomb of Jahangir, along the banks of River Ravi. Emperor Jahangir, who ruled the Mughal Empire from 1605 to 1627 C.E. The Janangir mausoleum is most popular due to its fantasist interiors extensively embellished with frescoes and marbles. This spot had been a favorite area of Jahangir and his wife Nur Jahan when they resided in Lahore, and this spot was usually used as a point of departure for travels to and from Kashmir and Lahore. The Jahangir Tomb along with Akbari Sarai, Tomb of Asif Khan are in the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage status. Much of mausoleum’s exterior that is richly decorated with pietra dura. This was rural area famous for its many pleasure gardens. The tomb in located in Nur Jahan's pleasure garden, the Dilkusha Garden, that had been laid out in 1557. The tomb of Jahangir's wife Nur Jahan is located slight southwest of Asif Khan's tomb. However, the Tomb of Asif Khan, built in 1645, and the Akbari Sarai, built in 1637, are located immediately west of Jahangir's tomb complex. Flooding from the nearby River Ravi threatened or damaged the site sustained water damage during flooding in 1988 that covered much of the site in 10 feet of water for 5 days.
Jahangir was died on 28 October 1627 in the foothills Kashmir when he was on travelling to town of Rajauri. His dead body was carried from Kashmir to Shahdara on 12 Nov 1627. The Dilkusha Garden was his favourite spot of Jahangir and his wife Nur Jahan, when they lived in Lahore.  The funeral procession done by his son (Emperor Shah Jahan) in that place , ordered a mausoleum befitting an Emperor should be built in his father's honor to inter his remains. Jahangir has renewed interest in minarets; however some historians attribute construction of tomb to Jahangir’s son Shah Jahan. Jahangir’s wife Nur Jahan had vision of constructing tomb, taking inspiration from her father’s burial place. It is believed, that construction cost was around 10 lakh and it took three years to finish. The tomb's gardens are laid out in the Persian Chahar Bagh style. Hence, the construction work of the mausoleum lasted 10 years, from 1627 to 1637, and was most likely funded by the imperial treasury (though there is some evidence that Jahangir's wife, Nur Jahan, may have financed the construction).
In 1814, some repair work done by Sikh rule when they were pillaged by the army of Ranjit Singh, with building materials used for decoration of the Golden Temple in Amritsar. The tomb complex, was also desecrated and pillaged grounds were then converted for use as a private residence for an officer in the army of Ranjit Singh.  The monuments suffered further under British rule, when a railway line was built between the tombs of Asif Khan and Nur Jahan. The site was then repaired by the British between somewhere 1889-1890. The tombs walls are inlaid with carved marble.
The walls of the tomb are inlaid with red sandstone and carved marble motifs. Arcades surround the tomb and feature ghalib kari, or ribs inlaid into arched surfaces on the arch's curved areas. The square shaped mausoleum’s is 22 foot tall and roof is embellished with marble. The building rise four octagonal ornamental minarets decorated with geometric inlaid stone. The minarets rise to a height of 100 feet and the body of the minaret rests, called by white marble cupolas. Also, the burial chamber contains the Emperor's cenotaph. The series of vaulted compartments are richly adorned with Mughal buon fresco. In the center of the mausoleum is an octagonal chamber lined with carved marble in which the remains of the Mughal Emperor rest in a crypt below a cenotaph.
 
The interior of the tomb features a white-marble cenotaph inlaid with pietra dura in vegetal patterns, as well as the 99 Names of Allah, a common theme in Islamic mysticism. The mausoleum is set in a large quadrangle with gates facing each of the cardinal directions. Thus, entry to the quadrangle is through the western edge via the Akbari Sarai. Also there is a gate featuring a small mosque. To the immediate west of the Akbari Sarai is the Tomb of Asif Khan - Jahangir's brother-in-law. Nowadays, the tomb of Jahangir holds exceptional significance for Pakistanis as it is the only Mughal tomb located in present-day Pakistan. Its image appears on the 1,000 rupee banknote and it remains one of Lahore's most popular attractions.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Source: CP

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