Sunday, 28 February 2016

The Mysterious Boiling River of Mayantuyacu, Peru

From many centuries Peruvian inhabitants are talking about mysterious boiling river in the Amazon that burns so hot. Even some one can kill in this boiling water. The river flowing deep in the Amazon rainforest, in Mayantuyacu, Peru call it “Shanay-timpishka” translates to “boiled with the heat of the sun.” The locals folks have strong belief that boiling water is releasing by a giant serpent (Yacumama) “Mother of waters” a large serpent head shaped boulder at the river’s headwaters. The boiling river is 6 meter deep and 25 meters wide but only 6.4km long. The water temperature varies from 50 to 90 degree centigrade, and a little portion is touching 100 degree, which is hot enough to cause third degree burns within a seconds. 

Therefore, ill-fated animals have fallen into the river and got killed. Every year, a lot of tourists visit Mayantuyacu to experience the traditional medicinal practices of the Ashaninka people. Many believe, this natural wonder has managed to elude widespread notice for more than 75 years. However, Geologists dismissed the point, and argued that it’d have been take a massive amount of geothermal heat to boil even a small section of river, as the Amazon basin lies only 400 miles from the nearest active volcano. According to Spanish conquistadors were mistakenly ventured into the rainforest in search of gold. They say, man eating snakes and a river that boiled from below. 

Andres Ruzo, a geological scientist is so curious since his childhood. The Peruvian legend has the myth and had fascinated, whether the river could actually be real or not? His unanimous opinion gives the answer “NO”, the boiling river actually associated with hot volcanoes of country. Therefore, in 2011 Ruzo has decided to start his journey to see the boiling river, and he took the chance and hiked into the Amazon rainforest with his aunt, and finally saw the notorious river with his own eyes. Hence, much to his disbelief, the river was steam hot. He took the thermometer to measure the temperature, which was 86 degrees Celsius. The water was not quite boiling but really close enough to boiling. Furthermore, the river was 700km from the closest volcanic system, and temperature didn’t make any sense. 

In fact the river was only such type anywhere in the world. Ruzo, spent 5 years in investigation the river, their surrounding ecosystem, its water in the lab, in order to figure out what’s actually make him boil? Therefore, his dedication, passion and curiosity finally revealing some of its secrets, when it turns out, it are not the Sun that boils the water, but fault fed hot springs. He say, imagine earth like a human body, with fault lines and cracks running through it like arteries. These 'Earth arteries' are filled with hot water, and when they come to the surface, we see geothermal manifestations - like the boiling river.

Moreover, chemical analysis has disclosed that the water in the river originally fell as rain. Therefore, Ruzo now assumes that this happens far upstream - maybe as far away as in the Andes - and along its journey seeps down into the ground, where it's heated up by Earth's geothermal energy. It eventually emerges in the Amazon, at the boiling river. The system is part of a massive hydrothermal system, the likes of which haven't been seen anywhere else on the planet. He has also discovered some new species that are able to survive in the boiling water. 

The animals can no longer swim, and water fills their mouths and lungs, causing them to be cooked from the inside out. However, people do actually swim in the river, but only after heavy rainfalls when it's diluted with cold water. More often, the water is used to make tea and for cooking. So, he strongly believes the river is a natural wonder, and he released a book name “The Boiling River on his Adventure”. 

Friday, 26 February 2016

S.P. Crater, San Francisco



S P Crater is a classics cinder cone volcano fields in the desert of San Francisco, about 40 km between Flagstaff, Arizona and the Grand Canyon. SP Crater is about 800 feet from its base, being a cinder cone; and steep and scree-covered, making the ascent a bit more difficult. Although it is surrounded by many other cinder cones perhaps much older and eroded as well. Maybe the best part of this cone is the view that can be seen from the top of the Grand Canyon and more fabulously, the San Francisco Peaks. It is thought, it is more than 71,000 years old and last eruption was recorded one thousand years ago. Moreover, leading away from the cinder cone on its north side is a large black lava flow approximately four miles long that looks imposing from the rim of the crater. However, the initials S.P. stand for “Shit Pot” a much suitable name peer into the deep crate or even venture in a little bit if you’re feeling wild.  Furthermore, the best second part is the quick “Skiing” descent that has the descender taking giant leaps in the sandy scree, a sliding way occasionally tumbling until 30 to 45 minutes to climb to the top.

SP Crater structure is made up of volcanic fragments, often glassy rocks encompassing bubbles of trapped gas.  However, when lava erupts from these structures, it frequently flows out of breaches on the side, and that appears to be the case at SP Crater. As per U.S, Geological Survey, over 600 volcanoes has been occurred the San Francisco Volcanic field. Moreover it is a striking feature when viewed from certain angles on the ground, the combination of the smooth round shape of the cone, the dark lava spatter on the rim, and the long dark lava flow extruding from the base do truly resemble a toilet catastrophe. The researchers consider the lava flow to have slightly predated the cinder cone because of geochemical data that suggests the flow is more silica rich than the cinders and based on the observation that the cone overlaps the lava flow and shows no sign of deformation.

The Stunning Photos of Hidden Indian Landscape



Well, here you’ve a chance to see incredible India, probably you’ve never seen. Photographer Neelima Vallangi has unearthed stunning photos of country’s stunning forests, snowcapped mountains in Himalayas and islands far away from the bustling metropolises. Most of photorgraphers, concentrate on Indian crowded streets, ancient temples, roads, and colorful fabrics. But, this is breathtaking hidden side far away from the usual bustle. The daredevil photographer has discovered India’s peaceful and serene corners of the country, capturing beautiful images in Karnataka in the South and Himalayas in the north.

The brave photographer spent massive time for hiking and travelling to remote corners of the country to explore India's natural diversity. The 30 years old lady photographer said, for the longest time I shield away from travelling in India, therefore, when I travelled in 2008 to Himalayas I found India’s silent places. Although places full of character yet devoid of the crowd that has become synonymous with our loving country. The magnificent landscape was a revelation from Himalayas to deserts and evergreen forests to pristine beaches. My aim is to explore natural beauty to show that India’s is one of great picturesque place.  Therefore, in my quest my avoid throngs of people as much as possible, I being straying away as far as possible from the mainstream and thus started my journey to discover another India. I’m sure everyone would be inspired with my work.




















Thursday, 25 February 2016

The Puente de Occidente Colombia



The Puente de Occidente is also called Bridge of the West is located in western Antioquia, Colombia. The Puente de Occidente is a suspension bridge that connects the municipalities of Olaya and Santa Fe de Antioquia, east and west of the Cauca River, respectively. Therefore, this was an impressive single suspension span supported from four pyramidal towers on each bank of the river with each tower anchoring two cables. The suspension bridge has a main central section which cars and smaller trucks can cross and two pedestrian paths on either side of the central roadway. So far, it is considered the 7th largest suspension bridge worldwide. 

The bridge construction was started in 1887. So, material mainly iron and steel was being imported from England, however towers were built with local materials. The 291 meter high bridge works begin in December 1887 and completed in 1895, approximately five years after initiation with the final cost was 171.000 pesos. Initially it was open for pedestrian only, but later on decision was made revert and vehicles were allowed. These days much longer suspension bridge in providing facilitation to South American. Once, the Puente de Occidente was longest of such type in the continent, and with the passage of time, it requires repair work, which were significantly performed in the early part of 2014. In Nov 1978, it was declared a National Monument of Colombia. Moreover, the structural system of the Puente de Occidente is alike to the suspension/cable-stayed hybrid used in the Brooklyn Bridge. The bridge´s structure is made up of four caraway wooden towers, iron sheets supported on masonry walls, wire ropes and a roadway of 3.10 meters wide and lateral sidewalks. In 1955, bridge was underwent reinforcement works to increase the bearing capacity to allow vehicles. 

The Puente de Occidente was an expeditious way to get to the Magdalena Rive the country’s main waterway that divides the province into two parts. The major purpose was to construct the bridge actually remove the obstacles in order to establish the trade routes and would connect the region with other regions in the country. On May, 30 1881, a decision was made to build the suspension bridge over the Cauca River. Before the bridge, the river was undoubtedly, the greatest obstacle for the communication between the people of Antioquia. Due to rich history, and vulnerability, the bridge is included in tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Site. 

Wednesday, 24 February 2016

The Pyramid of Sun Mexico



The Pyramid of Sun is the largest building in Teotihuacan and Mesoamerica. The name derives from Aztecs, who visited the Teotihuacan during abandoned times. However, the name given to Pyramid by the Teotihuacanos is not confirmed. The Pyramid is found along the Avenue of the Dead, in between the Pyramid of the Moon and the Ciudadela, and in the shadow of the massive mountain Cerro Gordo. The pyramid rises 216 feet above ground level, and it measures about 720 by 760 feet at its base. It was constructed of about 1,000,000 cubic yards of material.

The two phase construction brought the size making the third largest Pyramid in the world, just over half and height of the Great Pyramid of Giza. However, the second phase construction could not survive into modern times. The Pyramid lime plaster imported from nearby areas, with dazzlingly colored murals. As the time passes, the Pyramid paint and plaster have no longer visible. The temple on the top of pyramid demolished deliberately and natural forces has prevented identification of the Pyramid. 

The structure orientation had some anthropological significance, August 12, and April 29 is divinatory Calendar year for the Teotihuacanos. Hence, August 12, is most important actually marked the date of beginning of the present era and initial day of the Maya long count calendar. The Pyramid was built on a man-made tunnel, and it is believed that place could have been used as royal tomb. There’re sacrificial objects found inside the Pyramid and same objects have been discovered at the nearby Pyramid of the Moon. 

A unique historical artifact discovered near the foot of the pyramid is now in the British Museum's collection. Moreover, the burial sites of children have been found in excavations at the corners of the pyramid, and thought these burials were part of a sacrificial ritual dedicating the building of the pyramid. The city and civilization was decline after 450 CE is not confirmed. Although, archaeologists believe, that climate change severe droughts led to internal unrest may have caused the destruction of the city. Nowadays, Teotihuacan is a widespread tourist destination replete with museums and ongoing archaeological investigation.

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